Kidney Stones and the risk that comes along with it.

Mr. Raman came to me complaining of recurring kidney stones. He left no stone unturned and visited many physicians, but in vain. There was no definite diagnosis for his recurring stone formations. He gave up all his favourite cuisines and started eating bland diets. He was emotionally down and came to me very depressed.

Well, this is not the first case I saw, every day in my clinic I come across at least one case of kidney stone. It’s a very common phenomenon now with 1 out of 6 Indian recorded to suffer from a kidney stone. Today I am going to discuss in detail every nook and corner behind the formation of kidney stones, its prevention, and management.

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To avail the complete guide for Kidney stone contact us through the WhatsApp number below.

First of all, you must keep in mind stone formation is a sequel of metabolic disorders that is persistent for a long time. To make it clear the concept of supersaturation important.

Have you ever tried to dissolve max sugar in a cup of water? What have you noticed? After a certain amount sugar does not dissolve but when you heat the water more sugar gets dissolved. This is supersaturation. Now when you cool the water sugar crystallizes back as sediments. Compare the same phenomenon with kidney stone formation. Where urine is the solvent and sugar is the minerals like Ca, uric acid, and oxalate. The ratio of solute (minerals) and solvent (urine) must be balanced, if this ratio is altered urine becomes supersaturated and beyond a certain threshold, these minerals start forming crystals. The threshold value is called the ‘upper limit of meta stability’

An individual’s urine contains different dissolved minerals like calcium, oxalate, phosphate, and uric acid. Those who have increased levels of these minerals in the urine have a higher probability of stone formation. Although kidney stone formation begins in negligible size it might grow larger obstructing the inner space of the kidney. At times, the kidney stone can reach down the ureter and the bladder. While the stone is in the bladder it might pass out of the body through urine. On the other hand, if it is stuck in the ureter, it might obstruct the urine flow resulting in pain.

What are the type of Kidney Stones?

Kidney stones vary in type and colour. Treatment of kidney stones and preventing their re-formation depends upon the type of stone an individual is having. Some common types of stones are-

Calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones (80 percent of stones)

Uric acid stones (5-10 percent of stones)

Struvite/infection stones (10 percent of stones)

Cystine stones (less than 1 percent of stones)

Xanthin stones (less than 1 percent of stones)

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Symptoms of Kidney stone

Cramping pain in the back and side (flank pain)62ad4bCramping pain in the back and side (flank pain)

The pain starts randomly and comes in waves

Severe need to urinate

Haematuria (presence of blood in the urine )

Dark coloured urine

Nausea and vomiting

Burning feeling during urination

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Causes of Kidney Stone

Dehydration

Obesity

Diet with high levels of protein, salt, or sugar

Other than that there are certain metabolic diseases that are also responsible for Kidney Stone.

Diseases such as:

Hyperparathyroidism

Hypercalcinuria

Hyperoxaluria

Gout

Inflammatory bowel diseases that increase calcium absorption

Medications such as diuretics (torsemide Furosemide), antiseizure drugs, and calcium-based antacids , calcium supplements ,  Vitamin D supplements, corticosteroid, allopurinol.

The best way to prevent kidney stones

It is advisable to:

Drink plenty of water ( 8-10 glass daily),

Avoid fizzy drinks

Avoid excess salt intake

Avoid high protein diet,

Have lemon juice with water (this might again vary regarding the type of stone one might have)

But it is better not to make any changes to your diet without consulting with a dietician first.

Dietary Management for Kidney Stone:

Choosing which food to limit depends on the type of stone developing in a person’s body.

In general, one must avoid the consumption of high-sodium foods, including processed, packaged foods, fast food, certain animal proteins, etc.

As stones vary in composition it is not wise to exclude or include any kind of food in your diet without consulting a dietician. Thus it is very important to know the type of stone an individual is having and decide the diet likewise.

Dietician Contact –

What happens if a kidney stone is left untreated?

One of the major factors that increase the risks of kidney stones is the production of less than 2-2.5 liter of urine per day. If left untreated it might lead to:

Severe back side pain

Increases the risk of UTIs

Infections in the kidney

Kidney failure

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Another risk related to kidney stones is that they have a tendency to reappear. If an individual has kidney stones, the chances of their recurrence in the next 5-7 years increase, especially in the cases of metabolic diseases like Hypercalcinuria, Hyperoxaluria, and Gout. This also increases the risk of recurrence of urinary tract infections and other related health issues.

When is surgery needed for kidney stones?

Usually, kidney stones can be dissolved by the use of medication and proper diet or can be passed with sufficient water intake. But if the size of the stone it’s too large (>5 mm) or is stuck in a part where it is unable to pass through the urine then surgery becomes the only option. It is not wise to avoid a surgery for kidney stone if it is causing huge pain or is blocking the flow of urine .

A kidney stone can easily be treated and prevented if one maintains precautions. It is not a matter to be taken lightly as kidney stone itself is not just a problem, the issues that one suffers due to its occurrence, like urinary tract infection, a kidney infection can also take other dangerous turns. Thus it is advised to stay alert, get proper tests done on time, and consult a doctor immediately if any symptoms are noticed.

When it comes to Kidney stone let me know what works best according to you?

(a) diet

(b) medication

Or WhatsApp here for appointment / To avail the hand book of Nephrolithiasis –

Published by Dr.Pratim Sengupta

Dr. Pratim Sengupta thinks of himself as conscious, living, soulful being with an inner urge to break the inertia of life. He feels that life is nothing but a material expression of the Supreme Almighty Consciousness. His conscious existence empowered him to see, to hear, to talk, to interact, to feel, to dream, to ask questions, and to seek solutions to every problem. In the flow of life, as he grew up, he understood that knowledge of life is the only way to understand the scientific basis of conscious existence. Hence Dr. Sengupta felt the urge to study the science of life – i.e. Medicine. After he completed his higher secondary education from the Ramakrishna Mission Vidyamandira in Belurmath, he joined the MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery) course at RG Kar Medical College, Kolkata. The professional packaging of knowledge in terms of a time-bound, goal-oriented syllabus frustrated him a bit, but nevertheless ignited the urge within him to study further. He thus went on to his post-graduation (MD) in Medicine from IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata. During his MD training, he got a glimpse of the vastness of knowledge, and the quest to learn precisely the facts of life narrowed down his area of interest to the functioning of the kidneys and the specialisation of Nephrology – a discipline that is complex, yet relatively new and still evolving in terms of complete understanding of renal physiology and pathology. So, Dr. Sengupta decided to study and train for the DM (Doctorate of Medicine) degree in Nephrology. Right from the start of his career, Dr. Sengupta was passionate about Research. During the MD programme he worked on Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy, Autonomic Neuropathy of Lupus, and Insulin resistance in Diabetics. All these research studies were published in national journals. During his postdoctoral study in Nephrology, he worked on Hemodialysis efficiency, and suggested an angular placement of the Dialyser in order to increase efficiency. This innovative concept was accepted for presentation at the World Congress of Nephrology, Milan, in 2009, and also published in Hemodialysis International. Dr. Sengupta also worked on Plasmapheresis – a blood filtering technique by which toxic and pathogenic immunoglobulins can be removed from the body. He studied the role of Prethymectomy Plasmapheresis in Myasthenia Gravis patients, and his findings were published in the journal Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery. The patient-empowered nutritional model for nutritional care of kidney patients is another interesting and innovative area in which Dr. Sengupta has worked for quite a long time. Dr.Pratim Sengupta won the Bharat Jyoti award for his excellency in the field of medicine. He is also the president of our non-governmental organization, The Kidney Care Society. His tireless contribution to provide quality living for his patients is worth mentioning. He introduced Mukti, blending ancient Indian yoga with modern medicine for well being of every patient. He has also introduced an unique online course "Art of Living with diabetes" which is a complete solution to diabetes management. He has authored many books, blogs, for the patients. Searching and researching for solutions to problems in the field of Nephrology remains the passion and dream of Dr. Pratim Sengupta, and he intends to persist on this journey as long as he is conscious. Meanwhile, even as he pursues his dreams, Dr. Sengupta diligently puts into practice all he has learned about Nephrology over the years, at the Belle Vue Clinic in Kolkata and ILS hospital,Dumdum where he is available for his patient

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