COVID is a devastating pandemic that has shattered millions of lives. Even after recovery patients experience a lot of complications and they again get admitted to the hospital. The signs and symptoms that appear post COVID are direct squeal of COVID infection and require medical attention. Today am going to discuss about different Post COVID.
Complications can be subdivided into major and minor complications.
First, I will discuss minor complications. Majority of patient complains of tastelessness. This is a well-known and self-limiting consequence of COVID infection. Keeping a slice of ginger and Haritaki (Terminali Chebula) in your mouth can sometimes help you regain your sense of taste.
Malaise may develop in the patient and last for up to two weeks. Drinking plenty of water and staying hydrated can assist you overcome this condition. If you have renal failure, you should be cautious about consuming too much fluid.
Another typical post-COVID consequence is COVID induced weakness, which can be caused by a variety of factors. Because COVID is a catabolic condition, a large number of patients lose muscular mass. Taking multivitamins and consulting with a dietitian are the greatest ways to combat weakness.
The first proposed mechanism is that nasal epithelial cells have a higher expression of ACE-2 receptors. The virus binds to these receptors, causing degeneration of the epithelial cells of the nasal mucosa, as well as inflammation and damage to the olfactory receptors in the brain.
Following COVID, some individuals may have a dry cough that lasts for many weeks. This is caused by COVID-induced airway hypersensitivity, which causes a bothersome dry cough. It’s difficult to treat and causes a lot of pain for individuals. Cough syrups are frequently ineffective. Inhaled steroids may be beneficial. The combination of Montelukast and levocetirizine is also beneficial. Few patients may get relief with anti taussives in modified doses. This problem needs special care.
COVID-19, on the other hand, may cause smell loss in other ways. For example, an Italian research team discovered that loss of smell and taste occurs at the same time as a rise in blood levels of interleukin-6, an inflammation-signaling molecule.
When walking or ascending stairs, many patients complain of effort intolerance and shortness of breath. Because COVID has a major impact on heart function, this occurs. If your shortness of breath worsens, you should contact your doctor.
Another typical issue is palpitation and tachycardia. Pulse rates can range from 100 to 120 beats per minute. There are several reasons for this, but one important cause is that COVID produces sympathetic overdrive. Palpitation is commonly treated with a low-dose beta-blocker. However, do not take a beta-blocker without consulting your physician, as beta-blockers have a variety of negative effects.
Some patients get headaches, particularly in the evening. After standing for a long time, they may become dizzy. They may require adequate hydration. We occasionally prescribe Sibelium paracetamol for headaches.
There have been a few instances of skin irritation after COVID infection. The majority of them are mild and self-limiting, and they go away on their own. We prescribe emollients, calamine creams, and anti-allergic medications on occasion.
Post COVID Psychosis is another complication to be noted.
Those who are prone to endogenous depression may require medical assistance Talking irrelevantly, sometimes losing orientation of day and night especially in the elderly is common. This is due to steroids that are given during treatment of COVID. When the steroid dose is reduced or stopped, the steroid psychosis disappears. They only need medical assistance on rare occasions.
Another common issue is sleep disturbances. Melatonin 3 mg at night is very beneficial. The patient must maintain good sleeping habits.
After COVID, thrombotic complications are also common. Blood thinners are commonly used. This blood thinner has the potential to induce problems. A person with a GI ulcer may bleed. Blood thinners can cause hemorrhagic stroke in the elderly. Bleeding inside the gums, black faeces, urethral bleed, cough, and black spots on the skin are all possible symptoms. If you encounter any of these symptoms, contact your doctor at once.
Bacterial and fungal infections are another common post-COVID consequence. Fever is the most common symptom of a bacterial infection. If the patient has a UTI, he or she may feel a burning feeling when voiding. Fungal infection like Tinea infections can be both cutaneous and mucosal. Always check your skin, private regions, and groins for any rash or itchy ringworm-like spot. Notify your doctor so that proper care can be provided. You must pay close attention to your oral cavity, groins, skins, and private regions. Black fungus, also known as Mucormycosis, is the most significant consequence that is being discussed all over the world. Mucormycosis occurs during active COVID treatment, so I won’t go into detail about it here.
Now we’ll look at a few major COVID problems that doctors are concerned about.
We’ve encountered a lot of patients who need oxygen at home after they’ve recovered from COVID. Because COVID induces interstitial lung disease and lung fibrosis, individuals may require oxygen therapy even after they have recovered from COVID. It is preferable to have oxygen support at home and to take oxygen, particularly at night when sleeping. Saturation should be checked often. Many may require oxygen support for 3-4 months. To understand what is happening to the lung throughout the recovery phase, this type of disease necessitates frequent medical supervision and radiographic supervision.
Heart block is another significant post-COVID complication. COVID causes myocarditis, and the heart’s electrical conduction tissue may malfunction, making it difficult to send electrical impulses. If your heart rate drops below 50, you should have an ECG and see your doctor. Following COVID, some people may require pacemaker implantation.
COVID has an impact on kidneys as well. It causes proteinuria in insignificant number of patients. In a study published last year where it was reported that 44% of COVID had De novo proteinuria in healthy adults and this proteinuria may last for a long time. Patients who had diabetic kidney disease and had mild proteinuria may experience an aggravation of proteinuria after COVID. COVID also causes relapse of nephrotic syndrome. COVID has a direct effect on tubules or the drugs used for COVID treatment like Remdesivir is nephrotoxic causes proteinuria. Acute renal failure with a reduction in eGFR is a serious complication of COVID.
Now Coming to GI complication, one serious complication is COVID causes elevated liver enzymes. It also causes GI to bleed. This is due to COVID causes microvascular complications in the gut mucosa. The patient may require admission and blood transfusion. Among all these complications the most serious complication is thrombosis of major arteries. It can cause health block leading to heart attack and acute myocardial infarction. There can be thrombotic stroke leading to paralysis of one side of the body, loss of vision, or many neurological complications.
Limb ischemia is one major problem and may require revascularization therapy in the cath lab. Post COVID pulmonary embolism is also reported which patients may experience after recovery.
As a result, once you’ve recovered from COVID, you’ll need to remain extremely watchful and aware. If you suffer any of the aforementioned signs and symptoms, contact your doctor right away. Remember that follow-up and surveillance are just as crucial as COVID treatment.
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